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The eggs of the eastern gadfly, together with grass and hay, enter the horse's oral cavity, where the larvae of the first stage emerge, and also penetrate into the oral mucosa. The larvae of the second and third stages of these gadflies parasitize in the stomach and intestines (intestinal gadfly) for 9-10 months, after which they go out with the feces of horses into the external environment. The larvae of the third stage of the red-tailed gadfly linger in the rectum. On the ground, the larvae pupate, and after 4-5 weeks, winged gadflies crawl out of them.
When horses are fed with green fodder and silage, an accelerated discharge of gadfly larvae is noted (Fig. 54). Usually winged gadflies live 10-15 days. During the year, the development of one generation of gastrophiles is completed.
- When opening the corpses of horses in the stomach, duodenum and rectum, gadfly larvae are found in quantities from a few to several hundred, numerous crater-like wounds on the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines.
- At the same time, there is inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membrane and submucosal layer of ventolin online. Cases of blockage by larvae of the pyloric opening and perforation (perforation) of the stomach wall, the formation of abscesses in the pelvic cavity in horses are described.
- The diagnosis of gastrofilosis during life is made on the basis of clinical signs, the detection of gadfly eggs on the hair, larvae in the oral mucosa and in the rectal cavity, as well as in feces.
- Sometimes, for diagnostic purposes, an ophthalmic reaction is used (an antigen from gadfly larvae is injected into the conjunctival sac of the eye) or chlorophos is administered orally, which causes partial excretion of larvae of the third stage of gastrophiles with the feces of a horse.
Posthumously, gastrophilia is diagnosed at the autopsy of the corpses of horses and the detection of gadfly larvae in the gastrointestinal tract.
To expel gadfly larvae from the stomach and duodenum of horses in winter, chlorophos is administered orally at a dose of 0.03 per 1 kg of body weight and carbon tetrachloride in normal doses. The larvae of the first stage, located in the oral mucosa, are destroyed in the fall when the mucous membrane is irrigated with a 2% solution of chlorophos or a 2% oil solution of technical hexachloran in an amount of 10-15 ml. In spring and summer, to destroy the larvae of the red-tailed gadfly in the rectum, enemas are used from emulsions of creolin or lysol (5-10 ml per 1 liter of mucous decoction), as well as a 2% solution of chlorophos.
To date, effective means and methods for the destruction of albuterol eggs have not been proposed.
To destroy the larvae emerging from the eggs of gadflies, periodic spraying (once every ten days) of the skin of horses with a 0.25% emulsion of technical hexachloran is carried out in the summer.
Preventive measures include the protection of horses from the attack of albuterol gadflies, the destruction of their larvae on the skin, in the gastrointestinal tract and in the feces of horses, night grazing and keeping horses in stables during hot hours.
For the treatment of one horse, 3-4 liters of emulsion are consumed. A 1% solution of chlorophos is also effective (repeated treatments after 3-4 days). Biothermal disinfection of horse manure prevents pupation of larvae of the third stage of gadflies, and full feeding increases the resistance of horses to pathogens of gastrophylosis and other parasitic diseases.
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